|The MILK and its composition|
| is a
complete food that helps us from the first moment of our life. Its composition
is complicated and interesting. The milk is a biological liquid with a
sweetish taste and a delicate smell.
From the chemical-physical point of view it is a watery mixture of many substances that can be found:
-in a solution (LACTOSE, MINERAL SALTS, WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS);
-in a collaidal dispersion (PROTEINS AND PHOSPHATES);
-in a emulsion (FATS, FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS)
-in a suspension (CELL AND MICRO-ORGANISMS)
Hundred millilitres of milk contain:
87.75% of water, 3.50% of fats, 3% of casein, 0.50% of lactalbumin and lactoglobulin, 4.50% of lactose, 0.75% of cinders.
If we heat these hundred millilitres, we get a 12.75% dry substance.
The cinders are costituted by mineral salts: calcium phosphate, calcium chloride, potassium, sodium, sulphates, magnesium and iron. The phosphate ion, in particular is found partly, combined in organic form with the casein, and partly as a calcium or potassium mineral salt. In the milk we can also found a little carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
The milk has also "biocatalitici" constituents such as vitamins, enzymes, micro-organisms. From the vitamins point of view milk is the most complete and balanced, it contains both fat-soluble (A,D,E,K) and water-soluble(B, C, PP) vitamins. It contains hydrolitic and oxidation- reducing enzymes.
Among the biological components it has cellular elements (leucocytes) and micro-organisms(milk's ferment, "proteolitici", "propionici", "butirrici", moulds, yeasts). The micro-organisms intervene above all in the process of curdling and maturing of the cheese.